JAINA ARCHITECTURE
in India
TAKEO KAMIYA
Jain Architecture
( from the Architectural Magazine "at" 1993 -94 )
HOME
___Chapter 1___DELWARA TEMPLES at Mt. ABU jaina arc
___Chapter 2___JAINA CAVE TEMPLES at ELLORA Jaina Caves
___Chapter 3___ARCHITECTURE in NORTHERN INDIA North Jain
___Chapter 4___ARCHITECTURE in SOUTHERN INDIA South Jain
___Chapter 5___TEMPLE CITIES on the MOUNTAINS Temple Cities
___Chapter 6___ADINATHA TEMPLE at RANAKPUR Ranakpur
___Chapter 7___JAINA PILGRIMAGE in NORTH INDIA North Jain
___Chapter 8___JAINA PILGRIMAGE in SOUTH INDIA South Jain
___Appendix____KALPA SUTRA, Jain Manuscript_ Kalpa Sutra
HOME
_
COMPARISON BETWEEN JAINISM & BUDDHISM

JAINISM BUDDHISM
Founder Kâsapa Vardhamâna Gotama Siddhârtha
Honorific name Mahâvîra (Great Hero), Jina Buddha, Sâkyamuni
Nigantha Nâtaputta Sâkyaputta
Life BC. 599-527, BC. 598-526
(Traditional)
BC. 563-483, BC. 463-383 (Northern)
BC. 549-477, BC. 539-467,
BC. 444-372 (Modern)
BC. 623-543 (Southern)
(Died at the age of 72) (Died at the age of 80)
Birth place North of Vaishâli in Magadha Lumbini Garden in Kapilavastu
at Kundagrâma town Under a ashoka tree
Native class Kshatriya (Warrior class) Kshatrya (Warrior class)
Jnatri clan Shakya clan
Parents Kâshapa Siddhârtha Shuddhodana
Trishalâ (Priyakarini) Mâyâ (died 7days after the birth)
Marriage Marry Kaundinuya Yashoda Marry Yashodarâ at age of 16
Daughter, Anojjah (marry Jamali) Son, Râhula
Renunciation become a shramana of Nigantha >
at the age of 30
become a shramana at Maghada
at the age of 29
Enlightenment after 12 years of asceticism begun Jina afeter 6 years of penance and meditation begun Buddha
Place of enlightenment Under Shala tree by the river Rijupâlikâ
near Jrimbhikagrâma village
Under Ashvattha (Bodhi) tree by the river Nairanjanâ near Gayâ
Place of the first sermon Sârnâth (Migadâya, Deer park)
Epistemology Seven satyas (jiva, ajiva, âsrava, bandha, samvara, nirjarâ, moksha) Four satyas (dukha-satya, samudaya-satya, nirodha-satya, marga-satya)
Syâdvâda (Relativism)
Practice Asceticism, Ahimsâ (non violence) Madhyamâ Pratipad (Middle Path)
Triratna (Samyagdarsana, Samyagjnana, Samyakcâritra) Madyana Pratipad (Eight right paths)
Five vows non violence, not lying, not stealing, non illicit sex, non posession non violence, not lying, not stealing, non illicit sex, temperance
Place of Nirvâna Pâwâ near Nâlandâ (now Pâwâpuri) Kushinagara (now Kasia), under Shala trees
Main disciples Indrabhûti Gautama, Sudharman Sâriputta, Mahâmoggallana
Order Sangha
Sacred books Siddhânta (Âgama) Tripitaka (Triple Basket)
Sacred language Ardha-Magadhi Pâli
Principle of teaching "Tattvârthâdhigamasûtra"
Story of former life "Bhavisattakahâ" "Jâtaka" (Birth)
Deification Jina (spiritual victor) Buddha (Awakened one)
24 Tîrthankaras (Saviour) Past 7 Buddhas (Past 24 Buddhas)
1st, Âdinâtha Future Buddha (Maitreya)
23rd, Pârshvanâtha Past present future 3000 Buddhas
24th, Mahâvira Dhyani-Buddhas
Sects Digambara (Sky-clad) Theravâda (Way of the Elders)
Shwetâmbara (White-clad) Mahâyâna (Greater Vehicle)
Terapantha (no temple) Vajrayâna (Vehicle of Diamond)


_
_

TIRTHANKARA

JINA statue
Statue of a Tirthankara ( Jina )
The founder of Jainism is Vardamana or Mahavira (Great Hero). But it is said that he is tha last Tirthankara or Jina (Victor) and the first one is Adinatha. All of Jain temples are dedicated to one of the 24 Tirthankaras.

Name of Tirthankara Symbol & Complexion
1 st Rishabha (Adinatha) Bull, Gold
2 nd Ajita (Ajiya) Elephant, Gold
3 rd Shambava Horse, Gold
4 th Abinandana Ape, Gold
5 th Sumati Curlew, Gold
6 th Padmapraba (Paumappabha) Lotus, Red
7 th Suparshuva Swastika mark, Gold
8 th Chandraprabha (Chandappabha) Crescent-moon, White
9 th Suvidhi (Puspadanta) Crocodile, White
10 th Sitaranatha Srivatsa mark, Gold
11 th Shureyansa Rhinoceros, Gold
12 th Vaspujya Buffalo, Red
13 th Vimala Boar, Gold
14 th Ananta Falcon, Gold
15 th Dharma (Damma) Thunderbolt, Gold
16 th Shanti Antelope, Gold
17 th Kunthu Goat, Gold
18 th Ara Nandyavarta mark, Gold
19 th Malli Water-jar, Blue
20 th Suvrata Tortoise, Black
21 st Nami Blue water-lily, Gold
22nd Nemi (Aristanemi) Conch shell, Black
23 rd Parshva (Pasa) Serpent, Blue
24 th Mahavira (Vardhamana) Lion, Gold


Bibliography


TOP
_
Mahavira
© Takeo Kamiya
E-mail to: kamiya@t.email.ne.jp